Tashkent Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums yesterday, today, tomorrow
Abdurakhman Akbaraliyevich Ashurov Director of the Tashkent Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums.
It is no exaggeration to say that the Tashkent Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums, which has a history of more than 100 years, is currently undergoing a process almost 100 years ago.
The foundation stone of the institute was laid on September 17, 1918 by the order of the People's Commissariat of Health of the Republic of Turkestan with the establishment of a microbiological laboratory in Tashkent. This laboratory later became the Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. At that time, diseases such as smallpox and plague were widespread not only in the Republic, but throughout Central Asia, and the epidemiological situation was extremely difficult. Therefore, the institute has focused all its efforts on the elimination of these diseases and the improvement of the overall epidemiological situation in the Republic.
By 1950, a number of new laboratories and departments had been established at the institute, and separate departments for the production of drugs had been set up. In the same year, by the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the institute was renamed the Tashkent Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums and transferred to the Ministry of Health of the USSR.
The institute has its own production department, where the results of scientific research, developed drugs, vaccines and serums and diagnostic tools are put into practice in this department.
The main activities and tasks of the Tashkent Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums are as follows:
Study and scientific development of epidemiology and microbiology of infectious diseases in the Republic;
Production of safe and curative medicinal products (vaccines and serums), as well as diagnostic pharmaceutical products and study their effectiveness;
Scientific and methodological management of epidemiological laboratories, provision of pasteurization stations with antigen and vaccine materials;
Consultation with local health authorities and other organizations on epidemic disease control;
The first scientific works published by the institute were devoted to the problem of combating plague and smallpox. Along with the growth of the main activities of the institute, scientific topics have expanded, and at the same time the range of bacteriological drugs produced has expanded. Significant work has been done to study the epidemiology of intestinal infections, dropsy infections, diphtheria, measles, pneumonia microbiology. Extensive work has been done to study parasitic diseases - leishmaniasis, spirochetosis, helminthiasis.
Special expeditions were organized to study the epidemiology of certain regions of the country. In the field of production works, methods of serum production and their purification and concentration have been mastered.
In 1952, the production of smallpox and BTsJ vaccine was launched.
In 1957, according to a specific method developed by the staff of the institute began production of new drugs, vaccines KU and tuberculin OBF-BTsJ for the detection of dry antigen ischemia.
In the field of production improvement, the institute was the first in the former Soviet Union to develop a method of extracting serum against polyvalent gangrene and mastered it on a large scale in production. All key employees of the institute were directly involved in the fight against the epidemic in the country. After the victory of the Great Patriotic War, the institute intensified its work on the study of regional epidemiology of the republic.
From 1918 to 1949, the institute published about 500 scientific articles. During the former Soviet era, the small laboratory of 7 people became an independent research institute with great scientific potential, employing 566 people, including 67 researchers. Among the scientists there were 4 doctors of sciences, one of them was a corresponding member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the former Soviet Union and the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, 15 candidates of sciences, 48 junior researchers.
In recent years, scientists and production staff of the institute have been developing, assimilating and introducing very valuable and necessary drugs - bifidum and lactobacilli (1981 and 1984), erythrocyte immunodiagnostic test system for viral hepatitis B. (1985) and A (since 1988), monospecific diagnostic serums against T- and B-lymphocytes of mice (1987-1988), et al.
In 1987, TashVZITI was transformed into the Vaccina IIB (Scientific Production Association) and transferred to the Biopreparat Concern of the USSR Ministry of Medical Biological Industry (Minmedbioprom).
In 1993, the Vaccina Department of Internal Affairs was transferred to Uzpharmsanoat.
In 1995, the State Unitary Enterprise "Vaccina" was transformed from Uzfarsanoat into Uzbiofarm. At the same time, all scientific and technical developments, production sites and equipment of TashVZITI were transferred to Uzbiofarm.
Since 1996, when the institute was left without funding, its funding began to be provided on a grant basis. As the amount of funding decreased from year to year, the scientists of the institute with the main scientific potential left the institute.
The following scientists have made a significant contribution to the glorious history of the institute. Among them are the following scholars who headed the institute: A.D. Grekov (1918-1931), N.I. Bobilyova (1932-1934), S.I. Grishin (1938-1941), M.S. Zakharova (1941-1944), A.B. Inogomov (1944-1962), B.X. Magzumov (1962-1963), A.A. Abidov (1964-1981).
TashVZITI has become one of the largest scientific centers in the country, the first state organization on infectious diseases, one of the largest centers for the study, diagnosis and prevention of various infectious diseases. Scientists of the institute have developed and introduced into medical practice more than 120 vaccines and serums, treatment, diagnosis and other preventive measures. Even in 1959, in Moscow, in order to stop the outbreak of smallpox that had arisen from India, a vaccine against smallpox produced at the Institute was used to eradicate the disease.
The products manufactured in the production departments of the institute have been exported to more than 500 consumers in the Middle East, Latin America and Africa.
The results of the scientific achievements of TashVZITI, highly valued by the world community, have been put into practice as immunobiological drugs:
MAIN VACCINES: Anthrax vaccine, Gonorrhea vaccine, Malaria vaccine, Rabies vaccine, Plague vaccine, BTsJ vaccine against tuberculosis, Vi-antigen-induced vaccine, AD-vaccine, AK-vaccine, Staphylococcus-MAC vaccine vaccine, AS-anatoxin.
SERUM AND IMMUNOGLOBULINS: Anti-tetanus serum, Normal horse serum, Cobra, ephah, polyvalent serum against rattlesnake venom, antirabies immunoglobulin against rabies, immunoglobulin against bluetongue, Escherichia coli, paratyphoid fever, diarrhea, dysentery, dysentery.
BACTERIOPHAGES: Staphylococcal bacteriophage, Dysentery bacteriophage, Salmonellosis bacteriophage, Intestinal bacteriophage.
DIAGNOSTICS: Intestinal Diagnostics, Paratyphoid A Diagnostics, Paratyphoid B Diagnostics, Dysentery Diagnostics, Tuberculin, Hepatitis V Erythrocyte Diagnostics, Humoral Immunosuppression Test System, Diagnostic Serum.
BLOOD PREPARATIONS: Donor Albumin, Normal Immunoglobulin, Histoglobulin.
The Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated November 25, 2020 No PP-4899 "On comprehensive measures to develop biotechnology and improve the system of biological security of the country" sets the task to restore TashVZITI. This resolution supports the work of TashVZITI on the development of local immunobiological drugs, vaccines and serums, and the development of pharmaceutical biotechnology.
The tasks of the Institute are the creation, implementation, implementation of technologies, production and improvement of immunobiological drugs, vaccines and serums, various diagnostic and treatment tools through fundamental and applied research.
The staff of the Institute has carried out a number of activities to gradually implement the Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No PP-4899, including the establishment of 13 laboratories at the Institute, which were staffed with highly qualified personnel.
The staff of the institute has established cooperation with related and foreign research centers. Preliminary results of this cooperation include the work of the Institute in cooperation with the US IGN-International.
In a short period of time, our scientists have created a passive immunization in the form of an aerosol, conditionally called "Koviglobin", by purifying the gamma globulin fraction from the plasma of convalescent donors. The specific antibody content was 1: 250, with the drug retaining 4.5% of total protein.
Tests performed by the IXLA method in the ITI laboratory of virology showed positive results. The antiviral dose of the antiviral RBD was confirmed to be 76.28 to 200.0 AU / ml in 3 batches of the drug. Its safety and reactogenicity have been confirmed, and research is currently underway on pre-clinical trials and standardization of the drug.
It is planned to recommend the drug for the prevention of those who can be infected, for newly infected patients in the mild initial period of the disease by inhalation in an amount of 2-3 ml for 5-8 minutes.
This method can be used in conjunction with the main treatment method in the future to prevent severe cases and death.
In order to increase the immunogenicity of all vaccines produced by scientists of the Institute, it is recommended to use a mixture of its 0.5% gel and postmolecular hydrolysis products of lymphoid tissue instead of aluminum hydroxide, which is used as an adjuvant in world practice. Toxicity, reactogenicity, adjuvant properties of the obtained adjuvant samples were studied.
Of course, the current achievements of the institute are incomparable, and with the construction and commissioning of the Tashkent Pharma Park pharmaceutical cluster, modern equipped laboratories and production facilities can guarantee the solution of all problems.